Alpha and beta radiation have low penetrating power and are unlikely to affect vital internal organs from outside the body. Any type of ionizing radiation can cause burns, but alpha and beta radiation can only do so if radioactive contamination or nuclear fallout is deposited on the individual's skin or clothing. Gamma and neutron radiation can travel much further distances and penetrate the body easily, so whole-body irradiation generally causes ARS before skin effects are evident. Local gamma irradiation can cause skin effects without any sickness. In the early twentieth century, radiographers would commonly calibrate their machines by irradiating their own hand and measuring the time to onset of erythema . 
As would be expected, men experiencing AKI were more likely to have reported several baseline factors known to be related an to increased risk of AKI, including excessive alcohol use, smoking, diabetes, and CVD. In terms of factors related to prostate cancer, metastatic disease, prostatectomy, and chemotherapy were associated with a higher rate of AKI at baseline. The key finding was that ADT use within the previous 90 days was associated with a significantly increased risk of AKI compared with that in men never exposed to ADT (odds ratio [OR] = ; 95%CI, –). When the cohort was segregated by type of ADT received, then the use of LHRH agonists, estrogen, combined androgen blockade, and other combination therapies all significantly increased the risk of AKI. Use of oral antiandrogens and bilateral orchiectomy were associated with an increased risk of AKI, but this was not significant.
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