Steroid hormones exert their effects on their target cells by

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [37] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [38] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] :10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [38]

Hypercalcemia may develop both spontaneously and as a result of androgen therapy in women with disseminated breast carcinoma.  If it develops while on this agent, the drug should be discontinued. Caution is required in administering these agents to patients with cardiac, renal or hepatic disease.  Cholestatic jaundice is associated with therapeutic use of anabolic and androgenic steroids.  Edema may occur occasionally with or without congestive heart failure.  Concomitant administration of adrenal steroids or ACTH may add to the edema.  In children, anabolic steroid treatment may accelerate bone maturation without producing compensatory gain in linear growth.  This adverse effect may result in compromised adult stature.  The younger the child the greater the risk of compromising final mature height.   The effect on bone maturation should be monitored by assessing bone age of the wrist and hand every six months.  This drug has not been shown to be safe and effective for the enhancement of athletic performance. Because of the potential risk of serious adverse health effects, this drug should not be used for such purpose.

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

Steroid hormones exert their effects on their target cells by

steroid hormones exert their effects on their target cells by

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