Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulation. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There are two types of edema, non-pitting edema and pitting edema. Causes of pitting edema is caused by systemic diseases (most commonly involving the heart, liver, and kidneys), and medications. Local conditions that cause edema are thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Edema or swelling of the legs, feet, ankles, and face are common during pregnancy. Idiopathic edema is edema in which the cause is not known. Pitting edema is scored on pitting edema measurement scales. Edema is generally treated with medication.
The outcomes of the Whipple procedure are largely dependent on the unique circumstances of the patient, the tumor, and the expertise of the surgical team performing the procedure. What is known, however, is that survival rates from the Whipple procedure are higher at hospitals that specialize in this type of surgery. A recent study of the Whipple procedure reported in The New England Journal of Medicine found that operative mortality rates to be four times higher at low-volume hospitals (16%) than at high-volume hospitals (%). Emory Healthcare is home to one of few of the Southeast’s high volume Whipple procedure programs, having performed 119 Whipple procedures in 2010 alone.
Since this is a specialty clinic, patients are referred by a healthcare professional. During an initial consultation, the patient's skin, hair and nails are examined for disease involvement by Dr. Smith including specific skin exam techniques for evaluating disease risk and severity in autoimmune disease. The joints and muscles are also evaluated by the rheumatologist attending. Prior blood tests, radiologic studies and skin biopsies, if these have been performed, are evaluated and if necessary additional testing discussed with the patient. Based on the patient's history, overall condition, and degree of immune system compromise, a personalized treatment plan is recommended based on: