Mineralocorticosteroid wiki

DHEA is a naturally occurring steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands by both men and women. Production of it decreases with age. DHEA is not recommended for people under 40 years of age, unless DHEA levels are known to be low (<130 mg/dl in women and <180 mg/dl in men). Therapeutic doses of 10-50mg of DHEA are used by many mature individuals (age 40+) for increase in perceived physical and psychological well-being (improved quality of sleep, more relaxed, increased energy, better ability to handle stress, improved depressive state)1. For men or women who have either adrenal insufficiency or hypopituitarism, although gluco-and mineralocorticosteroid replacement is needed, 50 mg a day of DHEA is sufficient for replacement2. Studies have shown no dangerous side effects from DHEA supplementation when taken in normal recommended therapeutic doses3. With respect to potential increase of the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratio (T/E) through DHEA supplementation, studies support DHEA use of 50mg/day or less having only slightly affected levels for a short period of time (2–5 h) without exceeding the 6:1 current acceptable ratio for NANBF and the IPE. DHEA’s effectiveness as an anabolic or energy-producing agent remains unproven.

Many adverse effects of licorice poisoning can be seen and most are attributed to the mineralocorticoid effects of GZA. Depending on the dose and intake of licorice, serious problems and even hospitalization can arise. People with previously existing heart or kidney problems may be more susceptible to GZA and licorice poisoning. [45] It is important to monitor the amount of licorice consumed in order to prevent toxicity. It is difficult to determine a safe level, due to many varying factors from person to person. In the most sensitive individuals, daily intake of about 100 mg GZA can cause problems. [49] This is equivalent to 50 g licorice sweets. However, in most people, they can consume up to 400 mg before experiencing symptoms, which would be about 200 g licorice sweets. A rule of thumb says a normal healthy person can consume 10 mg GZA a day. [50]

Sequence alignments of Hsp90 have shown the protein to have about 40% sequence identity across all homologs, indicating that it is a highly conserved protein. There are two homologs, found in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum respectively. The presence of these two homologs was likely caused by a gene duplication event very early in the evolution of eukaryotes that may have accompanied the evolution of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus . This inference is supported by the fact that the duplication is found in Giardia lamblia , one of the earliest branching eukaryotic species. At least 2 other subsequent gene duplications occurred, which explains the different forms of Hsp90 found in fungi and vertebrates . One divergence produced cognate and heat-induced forms of Hsp90 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , while the second gene duplication event in the cytosolic branch produced the alpha and beta subfamilies of sequences that are found in all vertebrates. In a phylogenetic tree based on Hsp90 sequences, it was found that plants and animals are more closely related to each other than to fungi. [66] Similar to the Hsp90 protein, the gene for Hsp70 protein also underwent duplication at a very early stage in the formation of eukaryotic cells and the homologs in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum resulted from this gene duplication event. [67] These gene duplication events are important in terms of the origin of the eukaryotic cell and of the endoplasmic reticulum. [68] [69]

Mineralocorticosteroid wiki

mineralocorticosteroid wiki

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