There is also data showing that antibiotics are helpful during preterm labor for women who carry bacteria called group B streptococcus (GBS). About one in five women will carry GBS, and babies who get infected during labor and delivery can become very sick. Antibiotics can treat GBS and reduce complications of a subsequent infection in the newborn, but carry risks for the mother ( Ohlssen & Shah, 2009 ). Most care providers test women for the bacteria about a month before their due date. The test involves taking swab samples from the lower vagina and rectum. Because it can take two or three days for test results to be returned, the general practice is to go ahead and begin treating a woman for GBS before confirmation of infection if a woman is in preterm labor. Most doctors think that this presumptive treatment is justified because as many as one in four women test positive for GBS. Ampicillin and penicillin are the antibiotics most commonly used for treatment.
Influenza Vaccine is now offered to all children aged from 2 to 11 years old. The vaccine is for all children in this age group regardless of whether they are healthy or have underlying illnesses. The vaccine is called Fluenz. It is very effective in preventing influenza and in preventing transmission of influenza in children to adults. The vaccine is given by spraying a tiny amount of liquid into each nostril. No injection is necessary. The School Health Service will arrange for the flu vaccine to be administered during school term (age 4 to 11yrs).
When the diagnosis of IUGR has been established, it is helpful to determine a specific etiology. Therapy may be nonspecific but should try to address the underlying cause. Many infants thought to be growth-retarded are, in retrospect, found to be constitutionally small. The key management issues are the gestational age of the pregnancy at the time of diagnosis and the urgency to expedite delivery. Most fetal deaths involving IUGR occur after 36 weeks of gestation and before labor begins. 1 The clinician must balance the risk of delivering a premature infant against the potential for intrauterine demise.