Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Care Consumers is based on the content of Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary , which has been the premier dictionary for health care professionals for over 100 years. Created especially with the health care consumer in mind, Dorland's contains approximately 40,000 entries and more than 350 illustrations and provides authoritative, concise definitions for a wide range of terms used in the health sciences, including those related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, drugs, tests and procedures, and much, much more.
The preponderance of research to date suggests that exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are beneficial. These free radicals induce adaptive changes in muscle that lead to greater production of mitochondria and hypertrophy of myofibers [ 17 , 21 , 23 , 24 ]. Exposure of cells to high concentrations of various antioxidant supplements (of which vitamins C and/or E have the most evidence) appears to blunt or block cell signaling and thereby inhibit some favorable physiological and physical adaptations to exercise. However, these adaptations might not prevent improvements in VO 2 max or endurance performance [ 25 ].